MADHYA PRADESH PARAMEDICAL COUNCIL

6th Floor, Satpura Bhawan, Bhopal

Syllabus & Guidelines

Schedule Serial No. 27

Subject: Pathology

No of Admission: - 0-5 Admission Per Year

S.N

Duration/ Degree/ Diploma/ Certificate

Syllabus

Teaching Faculty with minimum qualification & experience

Non teaching staff with qualification& Experience

Library

Libratory with Equipment

Building

 

Remarks

             

Teaching

Hostel

 

1.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.

2 year (24months)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B.Sc.Medical

Laboratory Technology courses 3 years.

Appendix 'A'

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix 'A'

. Professor of Pathology- 1. Associate Professor Pathology-1

Assistant Professor Pathology –2

Demonstrator-2

 

Same as above

Clerk-2

Computer

Operator- 1

Peon-2

Sweeper -2

Technician-4

Accountant–1

Chowkidaar-2

Nurse-2 (B.Sc .N)

Same as above

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lecture Hall-25ooSqft Demonstration room–3 1250 Sq.ft. each

 

 

 

 

 

Same as above

25 each room

15 'x 20'

with kitchen,

dining rooms, toilet

 

 

 

 

 

Same as above

 

Qualification & experience of teaching Staff as per Medical Council of India Norms

 

 

 

Same as above

Qualification

& experience of teaching Staff as per Medical Council of India Norms

 

 

 

Same as above

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SYLLABUS FOR DIPOLMA IN LAB. TECHNOLOGY (LAB.ATTEANDANT TRAINING)

(1) Applied Anatomy and physiology

Definition of Anstam and physiology:

Study of the structure of a cell in general, cellular activities and reproduction.

The circulatory system.

The Lymphatic system.

The respiratory system.

The digestive system and

The necessary organs of digestion- liver and pancreas.

The urinary system.

he reproductive system.

The endocrine system.

The central Nervous system. (All in brief)

  1. PATHOLOGY:

      1. Introduction to pathology- Principles of Laboratory work, Medical ethics, Para and cleanliness, and care with regard to infected material.

      2. Principle, function, maintenance and use of centrifuge, electric stove, sterilizer, microscope and its component part, simple, Analytical, electronic balancer, microtones, Automatic knife sharpeners, Automatic slide stainer, incubator, electronic cell counter, Automatic Tissue procured beep, freeze, Preening, Macro tome, and cryostat.

      3. Principles and working knowledge of the equipment and glassware used.

      4. Preparation of the stains and solution required including anticoagulant used in pathology.

      5. Collection of specimen.

CLINICAL PATHOLOGY

URINE: Urine meter, Esbachl's Albuminometer, preparation of various reagents. Composition, collection and preservation of urine for various tests, physical chemical and microscopic examination of urine, estimation of total albumin, use of dipatixs, Specific gravity, litmus paper, tests for albumin, sugar, blood, bile salts and pigments, urobilinogen, ketones bodies etc.

STOOL: Sample collection, physical, chemical and microscopic examination.

Body fluids: Cells start; sell morphology and detection of malignant cells in peritoneal fluid, pleured fluid, pericardial fluid, and synovial fluid. Differences between transuded and exudates.

Cerebrospinal Fluid: Pandy's test, Cell count, cell type differential count and malignant cells.

SEMEN:Sample collections microscopic examination for count and malignant and morphology.

Anatomic pathology:

    1. Reception, Registration, preservation and processing of specimens. Haematoxyline and eosine staining procedure, mounting of stained sections, Filing of paraffin blocks, and slides. Method of decalcification, Sharpening and holing Knives techniques, using of microtome.

    2. Museum: Mounting of specimens, labeling, maintenance of specimens and catalogue etc.

Post mortem/ Auteosy:

Maintenance of the records of the Dead Bodies and specimens received, Autopsy techniques, Autopsy instruments, clod storage plants, legal aspects etc.

DIPLOMA IN MEDICAL LAB. TECHNOLOGY COURSE:

1) BACTERIOLOGY:

1. Bacteriology- General

2. General measures of personal hygiene & cleanliness in Laboratory.

3. Use of Gleves, and masks and Aprous for personal protection.

4. Cleaning of equipment and glassware

5. Cleaning and disinfections of workbenches.

6. Use of centrifuges, water bath etc.

7. Disinfection of accidental spills.

8. Methods of sterilization-practical aspect of various methods

9. of discard material before disposal or washing.

10. Sterilization of glass syringes and needles.

11. Proper disposal of disposable syringes & needles.

12. Sterilization of slides, pipettes, bottlers, flasks and other glassware.

13. Preparation of smears and various staining methods.

14. Preparation of Throat swabs.

15. Collection of different specimens viz: Throat swab, stool, Urine, Blood, Pus, Wound swab, skiing clip, Theater swab etc.

2. MYCOLOGY:

1. Collection of specimens and storage.

2. KOH preparation

3. Putting up culture.

3. SEROLOGY:

1. Sample collection, labeling, serum separation & Inactivation.

2. Cleaning of test tubes and bottles and their disinfections.

3. Disinfections of disposal.

4. GENERAL:

1. Maintenance of sterility in the laboratory.

2. Assist the technicians wherever necessary.

13. Various techniques of processing:

Throat Swab, Sputum, blood, urine, stool, pus, CSF, other body fluids, other swabs like from wounds, skin clipping, spore strips, culture of Mycobacteria and other routine organisms, theatre swabs etc.

14. Antibiotic Senstivity testing:

15. Food Poisoning – Collection of specimen & processing.

16. Culture Techniques – Primary Culture, Sub – culture, Biochemical reactions, Agglutination methods, and Animal inoculation.

17. Water, Milk and Air analysis.

18. Maintenance of stock cultures.

II. MYCOLOGY:

1. Introduction.

2. Superficial Mycoses.

3. Dermotophytes.

4. Sub – Cutaneous and deep mycoses.

5. Systemic Mycoses. 6. Contaminant Fungi.

PRACTICALS:

1. Collection of material.

2. Labeling and Microscopy.

3. Culture methods.

HAEMATOLOGY:

BLOOD: Composition, collection of blood in the proper containers and precautions to be taken. Preparation of thick and thin and wet smears and staining. Recognition of blood parasites, Rb, PCV, REC counts WAC count. Different count, calcilation of Indices. Absolute eorinophil count, glatele, count, E.R. chromatic fragility, bleeding time, clotting time, S.L. Cen preparation, giskling test, Reticulocyte count preparation.

BONE MARROW: Needles preparation of smears and staining.

BLOOD BANKING:

(a) Introduction to ABO blood groups and Rh types. Other types of Blood group systems, collection of blood samples for ASO group and Rh type, cross matching, Coomb's test – Direct and Indirect. Preparation of grouping sera, Preparation of ACD solution and CPS solutions. Sterilization of different equipment for blood collection.

(b) Labelling and Maintenance of blood bags of records and registers.

(c) Equipment: - Blood Bank Refrigerator, Refrigerating Centrifuge, Deep Freeze, and Incubator.

(d) Donor Selection.

(e) Tests on donor's blood: - HIV- I & II, HB & AG, VDRL, Haemoparasites, Hepatitis C, CMV (Cytomegalovirus).

(f) Bleeding and Storing of the Blood.

(g) Transportation of the Blood bags.

(h) Invertory control of blood and its equality control.

(i) Preparation of different component of blood transfusion.

III. SEROLOGY:

1. Introduction.

2. Collection of specimen.

3. Labelling and separation of sera.

4. Inactivation of Serum.

5. VDRL Test – qualitative and semi-qualitative.

6. Widal Test- Principle, Procedure and interpretation (regarding).

7. Latex Tests – R.A. Factor, ASO, CRP, etc.

8. Brucella Agglutination Tests.

9. Paul Bunnel Test.

10. Cold Agglutination test.

11. SLISA.

12. R.P.H.A.

THEORY:

Antigens, Antibodies, Antigen – Antibody reactions in brief.

IV. PARASITOLOGY:

1. Introduction.

2. Parasites in Blood, stool and urea.

PRACTICALS:

1. Collection of Sample, and Labelling.

2. Stool examination.

3. Preservation of samples.

4. Disposal of infective material like samples and containers.

VIROLOGY:

1. Sample Collection.

2. Preservation of samples.

3. Transportation of specimens.

4. ELISA Test.

ANIMALS EXPERIMENTS:

1. Care of animals.

2. Procedure of preparing the animals for experiments.

(Page 591-600)

2. CYTOPATHOLOGY:

Techniques and equipment required: fixatives and staining procedures. FNAL techniques pap smeared and pap’s staining.

BLOOD BANK:

(a) Introduction to art blood groups and Rh types. Sterilization of different equipment for blood collection.

(b) Labelling and maintenance of blood bags, records and registers.

(c) Equipment: Blood Bank refrigerators, Refrigerating centrifuge deep freeze insulator. (d) Bleeding and ensuring of the blood.

(e) Transpartative of the blood bags. (f) Investors control of blood and its quality control. BACHELOR OF SCIENCE, MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY (LABORATORY) COURSE, And POST GRADUATE Introduction:

The objectives of the training: The training of the candidates registering for B.Sc. Medical Technology (Laboratory) course is aimed at equipping the candidate to carry out all the routine and some of the modern sophisticated diagnostic procedures in modern hospital laboratory. The basis for the training is practical training, supplemented by series of lecture, demonstrations on the theoretical aspects of various subjects. The students works by rotation in batches in the discipline of clinical biochemistry, microbiology, histopathology and hematology. The student spends 3 months in each of the principal discipline each year. The training, both theoretical and practical is split into 3 parts on a yearly basis. The students are evaluated by a system of internal assessment and three annual examinations. The final examination at the end of the 3rd year is a comprehensive one.

 

 

REGULATIONS FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY (LABORATORY) DEGREE.

1. The Bachelor of Medical Technology (Laboratory) is a three year integrated degree course w.e.f. The admission of 1989 under 10-+2 +3 system of education.

2. (i) Admission the First year class of Bachelor of Medical Technology (Laboratory) degree course shall be open to a person who has passed 10 + 2 examination in science group under 10 + 2 + 3 system of education or its equivalent examination with Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics/Biology and English as the subjects conducted by a recognized Board/ University. Candidates who have passed 10 + 2 examination in Laboratory technology in vocational scheme conducted by a recognized Board/ Council/ University will also be eligible.

(ii) The selection of candidates for admission to the course made on merit on the basis of an entrance examination held by the institute on All India basis. The admission notice is released in all English leading newspapers.

(iii) A person shall be eligible to join the second/third year class of the Bachelor of Medical Technology (Laboratory) course who has passed First year or Second year examination respectively under 10 + 2 + 3 system of education of PC Chandigarh.

3. The examination in first /second/third year shall be open to a student who:

(a) has passed not less than academic year previously 2 above.

(b) Has remained on the rolls of the course concerned for full one academic year preceding the examination and having attended not less than 90% of the full course of lectures and practicals separated held for the purpose in each year. The lectures/practicals will be counted upto the last day when the classes break up for appearing in the examination.

4. The Dean of the Institute, on the recommendation of the Co-ordinate of the course, will have the author condone deficiency upto 5% of the lectures/practicals. The Director, in exceptional cases, can be also condoning deficiency of another 5% of the lectures/practicals.

5. During each year, the student will be eligible for leave for 30 days. No other kind of leave or vacation will be admissible. In exceptional circumstances, a student may be granted 30 days leave. Not due on the condition that he/she shall work for the same number of days after the date on which he would have otherwise completed the course. If any students avail of leave of more than 60 days in any year (i.e. 30 days admissible leave plus 30 days leave not due), his/her session will be shifted by one year.

6. The examination for the First, second and third year shall ordinarily be held by the Institute during August. For those who are placed in compartment, a supplementary examination will be held in December or in a month as may be decided by the Director of the Institute. (Page 593)

7. The student shall submit his application for admission to the examination to the Registrar of the Institute, on the prescribed form, with the required fee and certificates regarding the satisfactory completion training by the candidate, duly signed by Co-ordinator of the course.

8. The examinations for the First, second and third year of B.Sc. Medical Technology (Laboratory) course would be held according to the prescribed syllabus.

9. The medium of examination shall be ENGLISH.

10. The examination for each part will be consist of four theory papers carrying 100 marks each on the following subject:

PART – I

Basic principles of biochemistry. Basis techniques in laboratory hematology and clinical pathology. Fundamentals of applied Histology. General Microbiology.

PART – II

Analytical biochemistry and metabolism. Fundamentals of Hematology. Basic cellular pathology and allied techniques. Identification of bacteria (system microbiology).

PART – III

Clinical biochemistry methods. Applied Hematology. Special Histology and Histochemical methods. Applied Micrology.

11. INTERNAL ASSESSMENT:

It will be of 100 marks in each subject which will be added to the marks of theory examination in the second year and final year examination @ 50 marks for each year.

12. PRACTICAL AND VIVA VOCE EXAMINATION:

The practical and viva voce examination will be held for all three year. The practical and viva voce examination in each subject will carry 100 marks. Where as the theory paper in the third examination will be based on the subject matter prescribed for that year the practical and viva voce examination will be comprehensive and will cover the whole course.

13. During all the three annual examinations the candidates shall have to obtain 50% marks separately in theory plus internal assessment and practical plus viva voce examination. The answer sheets of the candidate will be evaluated by the examiner setting the paper, the successful candidates shall be classified, as under on the aggregate marks obtained in the First, Second and Third year examinations taken together.

(a) Those who obtain 60% or more of the aggregate marks.

FIRST DIVISION.

(b) Those who obtain 50% or more but below 60% of the marks.

SECOND DIVISION.

(c) Candidate securing 70% and above shall be eligible for

SILVER MEDAL.

(d) Candidates securing 60% marks will be eligible for

BRONZE MEDAL.

Award of medals will be subject to he/she fulfilling other terms and conditions prescribed by the Institute purpose.

14. BOARD OF EXAMINATIONS: The board of examiners for Parts I, II and III will four examiners (two internal and two external) one from each subject i.e. Biochemistry, Microbiology, Pathology and Hematology. The coordinate of the course will be the Internal-cum-convener-examiner for all the examinations.

15. A student who obtains 50% of the aggregate marks in three subjects but has failed in one subject only, obtain not less than 30% marks in that subject shall be permitted to appear in the subject only at the next two consecutive examinations and it he/she passes at either of those examine he/she shall be deemed to have passed the examination.

16. A student to whom the above concession is granted shall eligible to join the next higher class provisionally but if he/she fails to qualify in the compartment subject at the supplementary examination, he/she shall be permitted to appear again in the subject along with the annual examination for the next year and if he/she fails to qualify in the compartment subject even at the second attempt, his/her result for the second year or third year as the case may be, shall be cancelled.

17. A failed student or a student who appear in the compartmental subject at the supplementary or the annual examination shall:

        1. be required to play examination fee as for the whole examination and

        2. he/she not be eligible for any prize or medal.

18. The name of a student, who has failed to appear a second time or appeared and failed for the second time in Part-I or Part-II examination, will be struck off the B.Sc. Medical Technology (Laboratory) course of the Institute.

19. The degree of B.Sc. Medical Technology (Laboratory) will be awarded to the candidate only after he/she has completed the following:

(a) has passed all three examinations (Part-I, II and III).

(b) Has satisfactorily completed the full period of training of three years.

(c) His/Her work and conduct during the period of studies have been satisfactory.

20. The Registrar shall publish the result of the examination as soon as possible, after the examination has been held.

TRAINING:

It is spread over 4 major laboratory disciplines and includes lectures and practicals. For practical training the students are posted in various labs and are engaged in day-to-day workload together with the employed technicians under supervision by the technology teachers. For this purpose the students spend 3 months every year in each of the 4 departments.

1. BIOCHEMISTRY.

2. MICROBIOLOGY: including Bacteriology, Mycology, Parasitology and Virology.

3. PATHOLOGY: including Morbid Anatomy, Histotechnology Electron Microscopy, Cytology and Immunopathology.

4. HEMATOLOGY: Hematology including Blood Transfusion and Clinical Pathology.

CURRICULUM:

The details are provided in two parts: -

(i) Brief preamble for each subject including the period of study and posting.

(ii) Syllabus for each subject.

1. BIOCHEMISTRY:

The candidate registering for B.Sc. Medical Technology (Laboratory) will be imparted basic training of theoretical and practical aspects in the field of Clinical Biochemistry. The students are made to learn the techniques of collection and preservation of samples, their estimation of collection and recording of date. The student will also obtain the basic knowledge of chemistry and metabolism of the relevant metabolites, which are routinely estimated in relation to different diseases so that he is performing a clear understanding of the basic tests. The principles of different techniques used for such estimations will also be imparted. The student will also be given basic training in laboratory management, safety measures, quality control aspects and automatic technology. The training in the subject is aimed at making the student work independently in advanced Clinical, Biochemistry laboratory of any hospital or medical institution. The student will be posted for training in the department of Biochemistry for a period of 13 weeks in each year. The distribution of time for theory and practical each year will be as under:

1. Theory-Basic Biochemistry 25 Hours.

2. Practicals-350 Hours 13 weeks.

3. Tutorial demonstration 50 Hours.

 

2. MICROBIOLOGY:

The candidate registering for B.Sc. Medical Technology (Laboratory) course is given basic training in the field of Microbiology. The students are made to learn the techniques of collection of samples, their processing and the identifications the various pathogens, like bacteria, parasites, viruses, using different techniques. In addition, the candidate is given migario training in the use of standard safety measures while handling highly infected material. The basic knowledge of the different diseases caused by various microorganism is also imparted, so that he/she has a clear understanding in the assignment. The training is aimed at making the student competent to isolate and ideate various micro-organism independently, the student will be posted Bacteriology, Parasitology, Virology and Mycology laboratories for a period of 13 weeks in each year as under:

1. Bacteriology, Immunology, Media room: 8 weeks.

2. Parasitology: 3 weeks.

3. Virology and Mycology: 1 week each. There will be 91 theory lectures and 39 practicals as under:

Subject

No. Of Lectures

No. Of Practicals

 

I year

II year

III year

I year

II year

III year

Bacteriology, Immunology, Media and Sterilization

Mycology

Parasitology

and Virology

18

3

7

3

14

4

8

4

14

4

8

4

6

2

3

2

6

2

3

2

6

2

3

2

HISTOTECHNOLOGY CYTOLOGY AND IMMUNOPATHOLOGY

The training is aimed at preparing the student to prepare stained tissue section of various types (paraffin, frozen). He/She would be able to provide special stains for procedures. He/She should be able to collect exfoliative cytology smears. Contact smears and perform find needle aspirations for cytology examination (under supervision) and carry out routine and special staining procedures on cytology smears. He/She should be able to perform the routine immunopathology techniques for tissue diagnosis. He/She should be able to organize the histopathology laboratory of the above system and basic museum display. The student will be posted in the various laboratories as under.

SUBJECT

NO. OF LECTURE

NO. OF PRACTICAL

I YEAR

II YEAR

III YEAR

I YEAR

II YEAR

III YEAR

HISTOPATHOLOGY

28 Gen. Anatomy Physiology

25 Techniques, Human pathology

20 Techniques, Applied Histology

11

7

7

CYTOLOGY

2 Gen.

3 stains

3 Hormonal cervical & FNAC

2

3

3

IMMUNOPATHOLOGY

-

2

7

-

3

3

HAEMATOLOGY & CLINICAL PATHOLOGY

The training imparted during the course will enable the student in to carry out routine clinical lab investigation (blood, urine, etc.) independently. He/She would be able to plan routine haematology operate equipment and its up keen. He/She would also be able to provide technical he1p for selected sophisticated haematologic techniques with adequate knowledge of principles involved. Training in lab. Safety.

HAEMATOLOGY: LECTURES:

1st Year General knowledge 20 Lectures

2nd Year Fundamentals of haematology 20 Lectures

3rd Year Applied haematology 20 Lectures

PRACTICAL: Three months each year. The student will be posted in the following laboratories for the period noted against each.

SUBJECT

I YEAR

13 weeks

-

-

-

II YEAR

-

4 weeks

5 weeks

4 weeks

III YEAR

-

4 weeks

4 weeks

5 weeks

Clinical path & General Haematology

Immuno-haematology and blood transfusion

Coagulation Lab.

Specialized tests

3 weeks

13 weeks

13 weeks

SYLLABUS FOR FIRST YEAR BIOCHEMISTRY BASIC PRINCIPLES OF BIOCHEMISTRY:

Introduction to medical technology role of medical laboratory Technologists, ethics, responsibility, safety, measures First aid (accidents). Cleaning and care of general laboratory glassware and equipment, preparation and storage of distilled water analytical balance, preparation of reagents and standard solutions, storage of chemicals. Units of measurement, S.I. Units, measurement of volumetric apparatus, (pipettes, flasks, cylinders) Cali of volumetric apparatus. Radioisotopes and their use in Biochemistry, mole, molar and normal solutions, pH, buffer solutions, pH and pH measurement, Osmosis, dialysis, surface tension. Urine analysis (qualitative) for sugar, proteins bile pigments, ketone bodies, porpholinoge, faeoal of blood. Collection and recording of biological specimens separation of serum plasma, preservation and disposal of biological samples material. Basic statistics (mean, SD, CV, normal distribution, probability). Normal or Reference range. Definition, influencing factors, determination. Volumetric analysis- Preparation of standard acid and base solutions, chloride estimation.

SYLLABUS FOR FIRST YEAR (A) HISTOTECHNOLOGY FUNDAMENTALS OF APPLIED HISTOLOGY

(a) INTRODUCTION:

i) Introduction to histopathology and laboratory organization.

ii) Laboratory equipment, uses and maintenance.

iii) Laboratory hazards and safety precautions.

iv) Compound microscope- optical system, magnification and maintenance.

(b) ANATOMY PHYSIOLOGY:

i) the anatomic and physiological organization of human body and integrated physiology.

ii) Cell organization and function.

iii) Skeletal system, bones, joints, and muscles.

iv) Body fluids and their significance.

v) Blood morphology, chemistry and function.

vi) Respiratory system

vii) Cardiovascular system viii) Alimentary system, mechanism and physiology of digestion and absorption

ix) Liver structure

x) Urinary system.

xi) Male genital system

xii) Female genital system.

(xiii) Nervous system.

(xiv) Spleen, lymph node and R.E. system.

(xv) Endocrine glands and their functions.

(c) FUNDAMENTALS OF APPLIED HISTOLOGY:

(i) Reception, recording and labeling of histology specimens.

(ii) Fixation and various fixatives.

(iii) Processing of histological tissues for parafinembedding.

(iv) Embedding and embedding media.

(v) Decalcification various types, there.

(vi) Micro tomes various types, there working principle and maintenance.

(vii) Microtome knives and knife sharpening.

(viii) Practical section cutting, cutting faults and remedies.

(ix) Routine staining procedures, mounting and mounting media.

(x) Dye chemistry, theory and practice of staining.

(xi) Solvents, mordents, accelerators and accentuators.

(xii) Uses of controls in various staining procedures.

(B) CYTOLOGY LECTURES:

1. Introduction to exfoliative cytology with special emphasis on female genital tract.

2. Collection processing and staining of the Cytologic specimen.

SYLLABUS FOR FIRST YEAR

HEMATOLOGY BASIC TECHNIQUES IN LABORATORY HEMATOLOGY AND CLINICAL:

1. Introduction to hematology and Laboratory Organization. Lab. Safety and Instrumentation.

2. Formation of blood.

3. Composition and functions of blood.

4. Various anticoagulants, their uses, mode of action and their merits and demerits.

5. Collection & preservation of blood for various hematological investigations.

6. Physiological variations in Hb, PCV, TLC and platelet.

7. Normal and absolute values in hematology. 8. Quality assurance in hematology.

9. Haemoglobinometry, various methods of estimation of Hb, errors involved and standardization of instrument for adaptation for Hb estimation.

10. Hemocytometry, procedures for cell counts visual as well as electronic, red cell, leucocytes and platelet counts. An error involved and means to minimize such errors.

11. Romanowsky dyes, preparation and staining procedure of the blood smears.

12. Morphology of normal blood cells and their identification.

13. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, factors influencing and various procedures for its estimation with their significance.

14. Haemocrit value by macro and micro methods their merit and demerits.

15. Routine examination of urine.

16. Examination of biological fluids such as CSF, etc.

17. Examination of semen.

 

 

 

 

SYLLABUS FOR FIRST YEAR

MICROBIOLOGY

(A) MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY

Part – I GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY

1 Introduction and brief history of microbiology.

2. Safety measures in microbiology.

3. General characteristics and classification of bacteria and fungi.

4. Growth and nutrition of microbes.

5. Care and maintenance of laboratory equipments.

6. Care and handling of various microscopes – binocular, DGI, phase – contrast, fluorescence and electron microscopes.

7. Principles and methods of sterilization.

8. Uses and mode of action of antiseptics and disinfectants.

9. Handling and cleaning of glassware apparatus. Decontamination and disposal of contaminated material.

10. Preparation, uses and standardization of culture media.

11. Principles of staining methods and preparation of reagents.

12. Aerobic and anaerobic culture methods.

13. General characters and nature of antigens and antibodies.

14. Principles of Antigen Antibody reactions.

15. Collection, transportation and processing of clinical samples for microbiology investigations.

16. Principles and mode of action of antibiotics and chemotherapeutic agents for bacteria and fungi.

17. Care and handling of laboratory animals.

18. Laboratory organization, management, recording of results and quality control in microbiology.

 

 

 

(B) VIROLOGY: Lectures:

1. Introduction to Medical Virology.

2. Nomenclature and classification of viruses.

3. General characteristics of viruses: physical, chemical and biological properties.

4. Collection, transport, processing and storage of sample for viral diagnosis.

Practical: Period of posting: 2 weeks:

1. Introduction to use of different laboratory instruments and their safety precautions.

2. Collection, handling and storage of samples for viral diagnosis.

3. Washing, cleaning and sterilization of media and glassware in virology.

4. Principles of biosafety hoods, use of pipettes, syringes and other virus contaminated instruments in the laboratory.

5. Demonstration of preservation of viruses, viral antigens, infected biological materials and viruses.

(C) PARASITOLOGY: Theory:

1.Introduction to medical and safety.

2. General characters and classification of protozoa.

3. Laboratory procedure collections, preservation and processing of samples for parasites stool/blood/fluids/tissue/biopsy.

4. Morphology and life cycles of intestinal protocol, Amoeba-Giardia.

5. Laboratory diagnosis of intestinal protozoa infection: - Amoeba-Giardia.

6. Morphology and diagnosis of oral of – trichomonas vaginal flagellates – E. Gingivalia.

7. Morphology and life cycle of Haemopro- malaria protozoa-parasite.

8. Laboratory diagnosis of malarial infection.

9.General characters and classification of medical helminthology.

10. Morphology and life cycles of Nematodes (Intestinal), - Ascaris, - Enterobious, -Ancylostoma, - Strongyloides.

11. Laboratory diagnosis of intestinal Nematode infection.

Practicals:

1. Introduction to operation of laboratory instruments and safety precautions.

2. Macroscopic examination of adult worms, cysts, tissues, and processing of stood sample for routine examination.

3. Saline and I2 preparation for protozoa cysts and trophozoites.

4. Concentration procedures for protozoa cysts and trophoziotes.

5. Concentration procedures for helminthic ova and cyst.

6. Examination and identification of ova and cyst of parasites of medical importance. (Page 598)

SYLLABUS FOR SECOND YEAR

BIOCHEMISTRY ANALYTICAL BIOCHEMISTRY AND METABOLISM: Colorimetry, spectro photometry, flam photometry. Atomi absorption spectroscopy. Electrometric determination of Na and K+, chromatography, electrophoresis. Introduction, properties and simple metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats, nucleic acids and enzymes (Introduction, general properties). Digestion and Absorption. Nutrition (Vitamins, Calories). Radioimmunoassay (RIA) and ELISA.

SYLLABUS FOR SECOND YEAR

BASIC CELLULAR PATHOLOGY AND ALLIED TECHNIQUES:

Human Histology:

I. Study of various body tissues: -

(a) Epithelial tissue.

(b) Connective tissue including bone and cartilage.

(c) Muscular tissue.

(d) Nervous tissue.

(e) Glands, epithetical and endocrine.

II. Histological Study of Various System of the Body:

(a) The circulatory system.

(b) The alimentary system.

(c) The digestive system including liver, pancreas and gall-bladder.

(d) The respiratory system.

(e) The urinary system.

(f) The system of endocrine glands.

(g) The reproductive system.

(h) Nerve endings and organs of special senses.

Fundamentals of Applied Histology:

1. Microscopy, working principle, maintenance and applications of various types of microscopes:

        1. Dark ground microscope.

        2. Polarizing microscope.

        3. Phase contrast microscope.

        4. Interference microscope.

        5. U.V. light microscope.

        6. Micrometry.

2. Metachromasis and metachromatic dyes.

3. Haematoxylin stain. Its importance in histology.

4. Carbohydrates and amyloid-special stains and procedures.

5. Connective tissues, trichrome staining and other special stain for muscle-fibres, elastic, reticulin fibres and collagen fibres.

6. Principles of metal impregnation techniques.

7. Demonstration and identification of minerals and pigments.

CYTOLOGY:

THREE LECTURES ON THE FOLLOWING SUBJECTS:

1. Stains cytologic preparation with special emphasis on MGG, PAPANICOLOU stains.

2. Special stains like PAS, Mucicarmine, Alcian blue, schmorl and acid phosphatase.

3. Cytologic screening and quality control in cytology laboratory.

SYLLABUS FOR SECOND YEAR

BASIC CELLULAR PATHOLOGY AND ALLIED TECHNIQUES

Human Histology:

I. Study of various body tissues: -

    1. Epithelial tissue.
    2. Connective tissue including bone and cartilage.
    3. Muscular tissue.
    4. Nervous tissue.
    5. Glands, epithetical and endocrine.

II. Histological Study of Various System of the Body:

    1. The circulatory system.
    2. The alimentary system.
    3. The digestive system including liver, pancreas and gall-bladder.
    4. The respiratory system.
    5. The urinary system.
    6. The system of endocrine glands.
    7. The reproductive system.

(h) Nerve endings and organs of special senses.

Fundamentals of Applied Histology:

1. Microscopy, working principle, maintenance and applications of various types of microscopes:

    1. Dark ground microscope.
    2. Polarizing microscope.
    3. Phase contrast microscope.
    4. Interference microscope.
    5. U.V. light microscope.
    6. Micrometry.

2. Metachromasis and metachromatic dyes.

3. Haematoxylin stain. Its importance in histology.

4. Carbohydrates and amyloid-special stains and procedures.

5. Connective tissues, trichrome staining and other special stains for muscle-fibres, elastic, reticulin fibres and collagen fibres.

6. Principles of metal impregnation techniques.

7. Demonstration and identification of minerals and pigments.

CYTOLOGY: THREE LECTURES ON THE FOLLOWING SUBJECTS:

1. Stains cytologic preparation with special emphasis on MGG, misprint.

2. Special misprint.

3. Cytologic screening and quality control in cytology laboratory.

SYLLABUS FOR SECOND YEAR MICROBIOLOGY

1.Identification of Bacteria:

Micrococci, staphylococci, streptococci, pneumococci, coryne-bacteria, escherichia, klebsiella, enterobacter, proteus-providencia salmonella, ship Ella, Arizona, citrobacter, yersinia, pseudomonas, vibrio, haemophilus, mycobacterium, brucella, bordetella, bacillus, clostridia, anaerobic cocci, neisseria, treponema, borrelia, leptospira, mycoplasma, ricketssia, chlamydia, Tric agents.

2. Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Fungi:

Candida, Cryptococci, Dermatophytes, Sporotrichoums, Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Coccidiodes, Para-Coccidiodes, Dematiaceous fungi, Mycetoma, Actinomyces, Nocardia and common laboratory contamins. 3. Biochemical tests used for identification of bacteria and fungi. 4. Antimicrobial sensitivity testing and assay methods for body fluids. 5. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for mycobacteria. 6. Preparation and Standardisation of antigens and antisera.

2(B) VIROLOGY: Lectures:

1. Different staining techniques used in Virology.

2. Use of Embryonated eggs in Clinical Virology.

3. Principles of animal cell culture and their use in Virology.

4. Use of common laboratory animals in viral diagnosis.

Practical: Periods of posting: 2 weeks: Demonstration of staining procedures: Preparation of the following stains and demonstration of viral inclusion bodies: (a) Seller’s stain for Negri body demonstration. (b) Giemsa stain for CMV and Herpes viral inclusions. 2. Preparation of reagents for serological tests: Phosphate buffered saline, veronal buffered saline, Alsever’s solution, Dextrose gelatin, veronal buffer and Tris buffer. 3. Principles and performance of viral Haemagglutination and Haemagglutination inhibition test. 4. Demonstration of Haemadsorption test, (misprint) 5. Collection, titration and preservation of gunea pig (misprint). 6. Demonstration of complement fixation test. 7. Demonstration of immunofluorescene test and (misprint) test. 8.Demonstration of ELISA for______ detection.

SYLLABUS FOR THIRD YEAR BIOCHEMISTRY CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY METHODS:

Principles of the assay procedures for biological materials Total proteins, albumin, Glucose, urea, _____, Creatinine, Cholesterol and Bilirubin. Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, calcium and _____ PBI, 17 Ketosteroids, Barbiturates. Glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance analysis, xylose absorption test, clearance test for function. Enzymes-acids and alkaline phosphatase, AST, Amylase and Lactate dehydrogenase, CPK. Analysis of calculi and CSF. Quality control of clinical investigations, Auto______ in Clinical biochemistry laboratory, laboratory or _____ management and maintenance of records

SYLLABUS FOR THIRD YEAR SPECIAL HISTOLOGY AND HISTOCHEMICAL METHODS

APPLIED HISTOLOGY:

1. Handling of fresh histological specimens (tissues), cryo/frozen sections of fresh and fixed tissues freeze-drying.

2. Lipids, identification and demonstration.

3. Micro-organisms in the tissues-various staining, techniques for their demonstration and identification.

4. Nucleic acids, DNA and RNA special stains and procedures.

5. Cytoplasmic constituents and their demonstration.

6. Tissues requiring special treatment i.e. eye ball B.M. biopsy, under calcified bones.

7. Neuropathologic techniques.

8. Enzyme histochemistry demonstration of phosphates, dehydrogenises, oxidizes and per oxidizes etc.

9. Electron microscope, working principles, components and allied techniques for electron microscopy, ultra-microtomy.

10. Museum techniques.

3(A) CYTOLOGY:

Lectures:

THREE LECTURES ON THE FOLLOWING SUBJECTS:

1. Cervical cytology basis of detection of malignant and pre malignant lesions.

2 Hormonal assessments with cytologic techniques and sex chromatin and pregnancy tests.

3. Aspiration cytology principles, indications and utility of the techniques with special emphasis on role of cytotechnician in FNAC clinics.

3(B) IMMUNOPATHOLOGY: Lectures:

1. Cells and organs of the immune system.

2. Immunoglobulins, antioxides and humeral immune response.

3. Allergy.

4. Rheumatological diseases and investigations.

5. Infection and the immune system.

6. Cancer Immunology.

7. Tissue typing for kidney transplant.

SYLLABUS FOR THIRD YEAR

HAEMATOLOGY APPLIED HAEMATOLOGY:

1. Definition and classification of anaemias.

2. Laboratory investigation for megaloblastic anaemia.

3. Laboratory investigation for iron deficiency anaemia.

4.Laboratory investigation for haemolytic anaemia including classification and causes.

5. Leukemia: Definition and classification.

6. Cytochemical staining procedures in various haematopiortic disorders.

7. Laboratory tests for assessing bleeding disorders.

8. Laboratory investigation for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).

9. Mechanism of fibrinolysis: tests for fabrinolysis.

10. Platelet function tests and their interpretation.

11. Techniques available for cytogenetic studies.

12. Use of radioisotopes in Haematology.

13. Safety measures for handling Radioisotopes.

SYLLABUS FOR THIRD YEAR

MICROBIOLOGY APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY:

1. Preservation of microbes and lyophilisation methods. Total and viable counts of bacteria.

2. Testing of disinfectants-Rideal-Walker, Chick-Martin and In-use tests.

3. Preparation and standardization of vaccines and immunization schedule.

4. Bacteriological examination of water, milk, food and air.

5. Nosocomial, Infections and sterility testing of I.V. fluids and processing of various samples for hospital infections.

6. Toxin-Antitoxin assays and pathogenicity tests.

7. Epidemiological markers of microorganisms serotyping. Bacteriophage and Bactriocine typing methods.

9. Lab. Diagnosis of common bacterial infections viz: Pyogenic infections, Respiratory tract infections, Meningitis, Diphtheria, Whooping cough, Gas gangrene, Food-poisoning, Enteric fever, Acute diarrhea diseases, Cholera, Urinary tract infection, Tuberculosis, Leprosy, Plague, Anthrax, Typhus fever, Syphilis, Gonorrhea and other STD’s.

10. SEROLOGICAL TESTS: Widal, ASO, LET, CRP, Rosewaller, Brucella agglutination, cold agglutination, VDRL, TPHA, FTA-ABS.

11. Lab. Diagnosis of fungal infections, Candidiasis, Crytococosis, Pulmonary infections, Mycetoma, Other deep mycotic infections, subcutaneous fungal infections-spozotrichosis, Chromoblastomyngsis, Eye and Ear fungi infections.

12. Serological tests for fungal infections and skin tests.

13. Advanced techniques in microbiology – ELISA, RIA, CCIEP, Co-agglutination GLC, HPLC etc.

14. Rapid diagnostic methods and Automation in Microbiology.

2(B) BASIC VIROLOGY METHODS:

Lectures:

1. Principles of serological techniques used in Virology – Part I: HA, HAI, HAD, SRH, RPHA, IHA, CFT, CIEP.

2. Principles of serological techniques used in Virology – Part-II: Nt, ELISA, RHA, IF, Immuno-peroxides test.

3. Mode of transmission of viral agents.

4. Prevention of viral diseases.

5. Immunity in viral infections

Practicals:

Period of posting: 2 weeks:

1. Demonstration of anatomical structures in fertile _____:

(i) Inoculation of fertile eggs.

(ii) Egg inoculation techniques into:

    1. Chorioallantoic
    2. Membrane.
    3. Allantoic cavity

(d) Yolk sac.

(iii) Harvesting of the materials from eggs inoculated by the ______.

2. Inoculation of virus infected material into mice by following routes:

    1. Intracerebral
    2. Intravenous.
    3. Intraperitoneel.

(d) Sub______.

3. Harvesting of infected of infected mouse brain for rabi_____.

4. Preparation of tissue culture media: -

    1. Hank’s balanced salt solution.
    2. Earle’s Balance _______.
    3. Minimum Essential medium.
  1. Collection of blood from:
    1. Mice.
    2. Retro orbital route.
    3. One day old chick.
    4. Cardiac bleeding.

6. Preparation of Guinea pig kidney powder for Paul _______.

7. Demonstration of Arboviral antigen preparation from _______ brains for HAI and CFT test.

8. Demonstration of Herpes viral antigens in tissue ________

2(C) PARASITOLOGY:

Topic :No. of Lecture

Morphology and life cycle of - Free living _________.

- Balantidia.

- Toxoplasm

Diagnosis of Morphology and life cycle of trematodes. - Schistosc_os.

- Intestine _______.

- Blood fluorescence

- Lung fluorescence